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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Prepare officials and individuals to survive a hostage incident 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
115313  Prepare officials and individuals to survive a hostage incident 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Visible Policing 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 08 - Law, Military Science and Security Safety in Society 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard is for preparing officials and individuals on how to survive a hostage incident as victim. This unit standard will contribute towards compliance with ethical -, legal - and organisational requirements applicable to the hostage incidents.

Learners credited with this unit standard will be able to apply appropriate levels of survival skills to increase the probability of surviving a hostage incident whilst simultaneously minimizing possibilities of injuries and attacks on the hostage victims. This unit standard envisages an improved safety of members who becomes victims of hostage incidents. This will be carried out in a credible manner that is free of discrimination, prejudice and within the ambits of the law.
The learner will be able to:
  • Demonstrate an ability to identify and avoid a situation that could result in hostage situations
  • Demonstrate an ability to cope during a hostage-taking situation
  • Demonstrate an ability to behave appropriately during a hostage situation
  • Provide evidence in respect of a hostage situation 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Communication skills at NQF level 4
    Problem identification
    Decision making skills 

    UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The principles of hostage survival are a generic concept that must be applied in low, medium and high-risk hostage incidents. This unit standard will focus on application of survival skills within a life-threatening incident. These skills will increase the possible cooperation of the hostages with perpetrators and authorities for the safe release of hostages. These skills will increase cooperation in the investigation of possible criminal actions and assistance during court proceedings. The intended conduct of the hostages will also assist the hostage negotiation team to resolve the incident peacefully or with minimal use of force. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate an ability to identify and avoid a situation that could result in hostage situations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    An understanding is demonstrated of hostage survival by referring to the theories of hostage survival. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    An understanding is demonstrated of the value of hostage negotiation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    An understanding is demonstrated in envisaging the impact of being a hostage. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The ability to identify potential risk is demonstrated in being targeted as a hostage. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The ability to avoid potential risk situations is demonstrated avoiding to become a hostage. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate an ability to cope during a hostage-taking situation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Hostages are prepared to react appropriately to the demands of the hostage takers during a hostage incident. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Communication and interaction with fellow hostages are established according to the appropriateness of the situation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Injured hostages are provided with relevant care. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Own emotional state and response is assessed on how to cope with the hostage-taking situation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The emotional state of the perpetrators and response is assessed to evaluate the risks factors. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate an ability to behave appropriately during a hostage situation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The motives of the perpetrators in hostage incidents are comprehended according to own capabilities. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The behaviour of perpetrators is discreetly taken note of the during a hostage incident for future evidence. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Information in regard to the identity of perpetrators is discreetly gathered during a hostage incident. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The kind of weapons carried by the hostage takers during an incident are described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The principles of effective self conduct during a hostage incident is understood. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION NOTES 
    Effective self conduct includes, but is not limited the following principles:
  • Self control
  • Patience
  • Non provocative actions
  • Compliance
  • Care for self and others 

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Provide evidence in respect of a hostage situation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    A report of the sequence of actions during the incident is given on request. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    A description of the hostage takers is given on request as accurately as possible. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Evidence is provided to support the investigation into the hostage taking as required by legislation. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
    Candidates are assessed against these assessment criteria. An assessor observes candidates carrying out their normal work duties. They may also be asked to carry out simulated tasks and to answer written and/or oral questions. Candidates will also e assessed using variety of assessment tools.
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider through the relevant ETQA by SAQA.
  • Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines in the relevant qualification and the agreed ETQA procedures.
  • The standard describes competent performance in doing physical techniques that will enhance their job performance, and lay down the criteria by which competence should be judged, as well as the range of circumstances in which competence should be demonstrated. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • A basic understanding of the relevant legislation, policy, procedures and practices.
  • A broad understanding of at least two theories of hostage survival. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
  • Decision making must be developed in this standard during practical exercises. Learners must be allowed to make their own decision which must be debriefed.
  • Creativity needs to be developed by measuring the learner's performance to the principles rather than a specific technique. 

  • UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    High emphasis is placed on problem solving ability during exercises. Exercises and scenarios are varied to ensure the development of effective problem solving skills. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organize one self and one's activities according to information gathered. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, evaluate, organize and critically evaluate information during hostage incidents, interpret it to determine safe action that complies with legal and policy requirements. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Understand the world as a set of related systems by understanding the consequences of illegal or public unacceptable use of force actions and decisions. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Integrated assessment methods and tools will allow the candidate to demonstrate that she/he has acquired knowledge of and can safely and effectively apply competence identified in this unit standard.

    These tools include the following:
  • In-site (on-the-job) observations
  • Role-play simulations
  • Structured group discussions
  • Written reports (e.g. tests, exams, case studies, projects, registers, logbooks, workbooks)
  • Verbal report backs (presentations)
  • Portfolios of evidence
  • Projects
  • Experiential learning
  • Working in teams
  • Scenario sketching and simulation exercise.

    These methods must be carefully selected based on the purpose of the assessment (For example, the written method of assessing knowledge or on-job demonstration of practical competence). The assessment must integrate a number of different methods in order to give the assessor reliable and valid proof of competence and evidence of required attitudes.

    Supplementary information

    A glossary of terms:

    Hostage situation: A hostage situation is when people are being held by another person or persons against their will, usually by force or coercion, and demands being made by the hostage taker. This term, for the purpose of this document, include being hostage in a kidnap or siege.

    Hostage survival: Hostage survival refer to the actions taken by the hostages themselfes to survive the life threatening incident.

    Hostage: An individual who is taken hostage or being kidnapped. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  58696   National Certificate: Close Protection  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Reregistered  2023-06-30  SAS SETA 
    Elective  66869   National Certificate: Home Affairs Services  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Reregistered  2023-06-30  PSETA 
    Elective  50419   National Certificate: Port Control and Admissions  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Registered" 
    2009-06-29  Was PSETA until Last Date for Achievement 
    Elective  48865   National Diploma: Policing  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Registered" 
    2007-12-02  Was SAS SETA until Last Date for Achievement 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. EKHURHULENI SHOOTING AND TRAINING ACADEMY 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.