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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Understand the processes and variables in mechanical pulping 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
114266  Understand the processes and variables in mechanical pulping 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Pulp and Paper 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04  10 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
Qualifying Learners will be able to understand the theory and practice of processes used in mechanical pulping. 

LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
Learners attempting this unit standard are required to understand process descriptions, physical phenomena, process equipment, interacting variables and product properties, it is therefore required that the person is competent in basic scientific theory and is familiar with the operation of mechanical pulping processes. 

UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
This unit standard covers the mechanical pulping processes from the end of raw material preparation to delivery of pulp for storage. 

Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
Learners are able to discuss and explain the basic equipment and processes of mechanical pulping 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. Generic and alternative mechanical pulping processes are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Ground wood, thermo mechanical pulping, chemi-thermo mechanical pulping.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Equipment used for mechanical pulping is discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Equipment used in ground wood, thermo mechanical and chemi- thermo mechanical pulping.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. The equipment arrangement for mechanical operations is discussed and explained. 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
The learner will have learned to discuss and explain the inputs to the mechanical pulping processes 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. The properties of the fibrous materials required for each mechanical process is discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Wood species, wood shape and dimensions, wood quality, wood age.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Utilities required for the mechanical pulping processes are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
steam, water, power.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. The supply of chemicals for all mechanical pulping processes is discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Chemicals for CTMP and those used for pitch and pH control.
 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
The learner will have learned to discuss and explain the process variables. 
OUTCOME NOTES 
The learner will have learned to discuss and explain the process variables and their interrelationships and their effect on product properties for the different mechanical pulping processes. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. The process variables and their effect on product quality for ground wood mechanical pulping are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Product properties, wood, equipment and utility variables.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. The process variables and their effect on product quality for thermo mechanical pulping are explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Product properties, wood chips, equipment and utility variables.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
2. The process variables and their effect on product quality for CTMP pulping are explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Product properties, wood chips, equipment and utility variables.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
4. The interrelationships of the process variables for each of the mechanical pulping processes are explained. 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
The learner will have learned to discuss and explain typical mechanical pulping process problems. 
OUTCOME NOTES 
The learner will have learned to discuss and explain typical mechanical pulping process problems and typical solutions to the problems. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. Typical product deviations leaving the process are discussed and explained and solutions offered. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Freeness, (low/high), dirt specs, shives.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Typical equipment problems within the process are discussed and explained and solutions offered. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Stone condition, refiner plates, water temperature.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. Typical raw material problems within the process are discussed and explained and solutions offered. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Wood age, wood condition.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
4. Environmental impacts are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Gaseous emissions, liquid emissions.
 


UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider through the relevant ETQA by SAQA.
Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines in the relevant qualification and the agreed ETQA procedures. 

UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
Things the learner knows and can explain:
Names, Functions and Locations of
  • The equipment pertaining to wood delivery systems, stone grinders, refiners, steaming systems, cleaners, screens
    Description, properties and characteristics of
  • Raw Materials (wood chips and logs, chemicals)
  • Product/s [wood pulp]
  • Process Equipment associated with wood delivery systems, stone grinders, refiners, steaming systems, cleaners, screens
  • A typical layout of a mechanical plant for different pulp making configurations.
    The Purpose of the
  • Process in terms of product/s, efficiencies and quality.
    Causes, effects and implications of
  • The process variables/conditions associated with wood delivery systems, stone grinders, refiners, steaming systems, cleaners, screens
  • Raw Material (wood chips, logs and chemicals)
  • Product Variables (type, strength, colour, cleanliness)
  • Hazards
    Interrelationships
  • Between the variables of mechanical pulping, the process equipment and process conditions.
    Regulations, legislation, agreements and policies related to:
  • Environmental impact of gaseous and liquid emissions
    Theory: rules, principles, laws
  • Length
  • Temperature
  • Heat exchange
  • Mass balances
  • Energy balances
  • Solid/liquid separations
  • Force
  • Friction 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
  • Describe typical mechanical pulping process problems and solutions to these problems
  • Describe the basic scientific theory behind typical processes and problems and generate alternative solutions based on theory. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
  • Participate in life long learning
  • Develop analytic skills in managing process operations 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
  • Use various sources of information pertaining to mechanical pulping including basic scientific and engineering theory 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
  • Give written or oral descriptions pertaining to chemical pulping
  • Respond to questions
  • Identify and solve problems 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    N/A 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  35941   National Certificate: Pulp and paper Manufacturing  Level 2  NQF Level 02  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Registered" 
    2007-02-11  Was FPMSETA until Last Date for Achievement 
    Elective  61971   National Certificate: Pulp and Paper Operations  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2023-06-30  FPMSETA 
    Elective  48643   Further Education and Training Certificate: Chemical Pulp Manufacturing  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Registered" 
    2007-02-11  Was FPMSETA until Last Date for Achievement 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Ehlanzeni TVET College 
    2. MONDI GTU 
    3. MPACT 
    4. VEB CELE & Associates (Pty) Ltd 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.