SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD THAT HAS PASSED THE END DATE: 

Demonstrate understanding of the water treatment and effluent treatment processes in the pulp and paper industry 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
110030  Demonstrate understanding of the water treatment and effluent treatment processes in the pulp and paper industry 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Pulp and Paper 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 3  NQF Level 03  10 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Passed the End Date -
Status was "Registered" 
2004-02-11  2007-02-11  SAQA 2152/04 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2008-02-11   2011-02-11  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard is replaced by: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status
246649  Demonstrate understanding of the water and effluent treatment processes in the pulp and paper industry  Level 3  NQF Level 03  This is only acceptable as a replacement if 110030 has the following statuses: Pending; Never Was Offered; Inactive. Please check that this is the case, and inform the Data Quality Coordinator if not. 
256354  Demonstrate understanding of the water and effluent treatment processes in the pulp and paper industry  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Complete 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
Persons credited with this unit standard are able to demonstrate an understanding of water requirements, pre-treatment for pulp and paper processing and the treatment of effluent from paper industry processing. 

LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
It is required that persons attempting this unit standard have achieved NQF level 1 or equivalent accreditation. 

UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
This unit standard covers the understanding of water and effluent treatment in the pulp and paper industry. 

Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
Qualifying learners can discuss and explain the basic water treatment process. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. The basic water treatment process is discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Filtration, clarification, chlorinators, pumps, filters, screens, biofilters.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. All items of equipment are identified and their functions are discussed and explained. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. The effects of the process variables on the properties of treated water are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Properties: Turbidity, chlorine content, pH, TDS, temperature, settleable solids.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
4. The impact of treated water properties on paper quality is discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Paper or pulp brightness, chemical consumption, shade variation, charge variation.
 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
The learner will be able to discuss and explain the basic effluent treatment process. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. The basic effluent treatment process is discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Primary treatment [clarification], secondary treatment and tertiary treatment.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. All items of equipment are identified and their functions are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Clarifiers, settlers, filters, biofilters, anaerobic digesters, activated sludge, aerobic digesters.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. The effects of the process variables on the properties of effluent are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Properties pH, conductivity, suspended solids, COD, sodium, temperature.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
4. The impact of effluent treatment on waste generated in the paper manufacturing process is discussed and explained. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
5. The impact of effluent out of specification, discharged into the river is discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Aquatic life, legal requirement, river pollution.
 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
The learner will have learned to discuss and explain the water requirements for pulp. 
OUTCOME NOTES 
The learner will have learned to discuss and explain the water requirements for pulp and paper processes. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. The water requirements and effluent generation for various pulping processes are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Kraft, liquor recovery circuits, sulphite.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. The water requirements and effluent generation for different bleaching processes are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Chlorine based processes, non-chlorine based processes.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. The water requirements and effluent generation for different paper making processes are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Waste based paper, kraft based paper, fine papers, tissue products.
 


UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider through the relevant ETQA by SAQA.
Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines in the relevant qualification and the agreed ETQA procedures. 

UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
Things the learner knows and can explain:

Names, Functions and Locations of:
  • Water treatment and effluent treatment equipment.
  • Paper and pulp equipment.

    Description, properties and characteristics of:
  • Raw water.
  • Treated water.
  • Effluent.
  • Process equipment for water and effluent treatment.
  • Layout of treatment facilities.

    The Purpose of:
  • Effluent and water treatment in terms of environmental impact and process effectiveness.

    Causes, effects and implications of:
  • Hazards.
  • Process variables and water and effluent quality.
  • Not complying with quality specifications.
  • Incoming water properties.
  • Effluent properties.

    Procedures and techniques of:
  • Water quality measurement.
  • Process evaluation in water treatment.

    Regulations, legislation, agreements and policies related to:
  • Occupational Health and Safety Act.
  • Environmental issues.
  • Principles of Solid Liquid Operations.
  • Relevant mensuration and units.
  • Basics of bioactivity with respect to water.
  • Basics of micro-organisms.
  • Solubility laws. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems:
  • Describe pulp and paper processing problems which can arise from water treatment deficiencies.
  • Describe water treatment problems which can arise from the processes of the pulp and paper industry. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage self and activities:
  • Develop analytical skills in managing process operations.
  • Participate in life-long learning. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information:
  • Use various sources of information pertaining to water and effluent treatment including basic scientific and engineering theory. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively:
  • Give written or oral descriptions pertaining to chemical pulping.
  • Respond to questions.
  • Identify and solve problems. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others:
  • Understand the impacts of water usage and effluent generation within the pulp and paper industry on the environment. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation by:
  • Understand the influences of the paper industry on the regional economy, environment and local communities. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    This unit standard will be replaced by unit standard 256354, which is "Demonstrate understanding of the water and effluent treatment processes in the pulp and paper industry", Level 3, 6 credits, as soon as 256354 is registered.

    This unit standard has been replaced by unit standard 246649, which is "Demonstrate understanding of the water and effluent treatment processes in the pulp and paper industry", Level 3, 6 credits. 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  35939   National Certificate: Pulp and Paper Woodyard Operations  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Registered" 
    2007-02-01  Was FPMSETA until Last Date for Achievement 
    Elective  48643   Further Education and Training Certificate: Chemical Pulp Manufacturing  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Registered" 
    2007-02-11  Was FPMSETA until Last Date for Achievement 
    Elective  48644   Further Education and Training Certificate: Paper, Board or Tissue Manufacturing  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Registered" 
    2007-02-11  Was FPMSETA until Last Date for Achievement 
    Elective  48645   Further Education and Training Certificate: Pulp and Paper Chemical Recovery  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Registered" 
    2007-02-11  Was FPMSETA until Last Date for Achievement 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.