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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED QUALIFICATION: 

National Certificate: International Trade 
SAQA QUAL ID QUALIFICATION TITLE
59326  National Certificate: International Trade 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Transport and Logistics Operations 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY NQF SUB-FRAMEWORK
TETA - Transport Education and Training Authority  OQSF - Occupational Qualifications Sub-framework 
QUALIFICATION TYPE FIELD SUBFIELD
National Certificate  Field 11 - Services  Transport, Operations and Logistics 
ABET BAND MINIMUM CREDITS PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL QUAL CLASS
Undefined  131  Level 2  NQF Level 02  Regular-Unit Stds Based 
REGISTRATION STATUS SAQA DECISION NUMBER REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE
Reregistered  SAQA 06120/18  2018-07-01  2023-06-30 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This qualification replaces: 
Qual ID Qualification Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Min Credits Replacement Status
22439  National Certificate: International Trade  Level 2  NQF Level 02  128  Complete 

PURPOSE AND RATIONALE OF THE QUALIFICATION 
Purpose:

This Qualification is intended to orientate a person to the world of work in the field of global trade, in particular the environment of international logistics and supply chain management. It will give learners the opportunity to apply knowledge gained about the industry to real situations in the workplace. The Unit Standards in the Qualification are intended as building blocks that will make the learner a more skilled, knowledgeable, informed and efficient worker in the industry.

The completion of this Qualification should add to the status of the worker and serve as an encouragement to embark on further study within the industry as part of the process of life long learning. The Qualification will also provide the basis for further development of the learner into specialist areas within the international logistics and supply chain management field.

The learner will be able to:
  • Communicate effectively both verbally and in writing with peers, supervisory levels and others and solve problems by applying mathematical practical applications.
  • Understand the principles of international trade and their application in the workplace.
  • Understand the processes and procedures for managing the inventory of internationally traded goods.
  • Complete certain documentation for the movement of internationally traded goods.
  • Apply basic logistics and supply chain management business principles.

    Rationale:

    New entrants to the freight industry in South Africa do not have the opportunity to gain a comprehensive foundation in the processes, terms and practices in the industry. This has resulted in frustrated and confused individuals with unrealised potential leaving the industry for other industries that welcome them and facilitate their entry. This Qualification has been developed to provide new entrants with a solid foundation applicable in the workplace, for which they will gain recognition in the form of a national Qualification.

    This Qualification is the start of a career path in international trade. The skills, values, attitudes and knowledge reflected in the Qualification are building blocks that will prepare learners for progression along the industry's learning ladder of registered Qualifications. This means that this Qualification provides the learner with accessibility and a developmental pathway to be employed for the full range of activities related to international trade, freight forwarding, customs compliance, logistics and supply chain management and provides flexibility in that learners accessing this Qualification may move into the NQF Level 3, 4 and 5 Qualifications in this environment.

    The Qualification will also provide opportunities for current employees in the industry to seek recognition for prior learning, gained in the workplace or through other studies, against the outcomes of the Unit Standards in this Qualification.

    The intention of this Qualification is to support the National Qualifications Framework in the following ways:
  • It provides progression from the NQF Level 2 Qualification to the NQF Level 3 Qualification.
  • It contributes to the full personal development of each learner by the inclusion of specified Unit Standards in the Fundamental and Core components. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are competent in:
  • Communication at NQF Level 1.
  • Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 1.

    Recognition of Prior Learning:

    The structure of this Qualification makes the recognition of prior learning possible through the assessment of individual unit standards. This Qualification may therefore be achieved in part or completely through the recognition of prior learning, which includes formal, informal and non-formal learning and work experience. The learner should be thoroughly briefed on the mechanism to be used and supported and guidance should be provided. Care should be taken that the mechanism used provides the learner with an opportunity to demonstrate competence and is not so onerous as to prevent learners from taking up the RPL option towards gaining a Qualification.

    If the learner is able to demonstrate competence in the knowledge, skills values attitudes implicit in this Qualification the appropriate credits should be assigned to the learner. Recognition of prior learning will be done by means of integrated assessment as mentioned above.

    Access to the Qualification:

    Access is open to all learners bearing in mind the learning assumed to be in place. 

  • RECOGNISE PREVIOUS LEARNING? 

    QUALIFICATION RULES 
    The Qualification is made up of a combination of learning outcomes from Fundamental, Core and Elective components, totalling 131 minimum Credits.
  • Fundamental: 36 Credits.
  • Core: 77 Credits.
  • Elective: 18 Credits.

    Total = 131 Credits.

    Fundamental component:

    All unit standards to the value of 36 credits are compulsory.

    Core component:

    All unit standards to the value of 77 credits are compulsory.

    Elective component:

    A learner must achieve a minimum of 18 credits from any of the three available Elective streams which would advance their chosen career path and that would add value to the purpose of the Qualification or the learner's own development. Learners should select Elective unit standards from any of these options depending on the sub-sector of the industry they are employed in or wish to further their career in.

    The streams are as follows:

    Inventory:
  • Count stock for stock take.
  • Controlling and locating stock.
  • Pick stock in a distribution centre/warehouse.
  • Move, pack and maintain stock in a distribution centre/warehouse.
  • Receive stock in a distribution centre/warehouse.

    Cargo movement:
  • Prepare freight for transport.
  • Load general freight.
  • Handle perishable cargo.
  • Arrange distribution of small to medium consignments door to door.
  • Convey dangerous goods by road.

    General:
  • Demonstrate knowledge pertaining to basic health and safety principles in and around the workplace.
  • Demonstrate knowledge and use of hand operated fire fighting equipment.
  • Apply ways of leading in different situations.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of a selected business environment.
  • Conduct basic financial transactions. 

  • EXIT LEVEL OUTCOMES 
    1. Communicate effectively both verbally and in writing with peers, supervisory levels and others and solve problems by applying practical mathematical applications.

    2. Understand the principles of international trade and their application in the workplace.

    3. Understand the processes and procedures for managing the inventory of internationally traded goods.

    4. Complete certain documentation for the movement of internationally traded goods.

    5. Apply basic freight forwarding and compliance principles. 

    ASSOCIATED ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 
    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 1:
  • Effective verbal communication is used in the interaction with all role players and stakeholders.
  • Effective written communication is used to communicate with peers, supervisors and clients when completing the required documentation.
  • Mathematical skills are applied in the completion of International Trade documentation.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 2:
  • The elementary principles of the international trade environment are explained in terms of logistics and supply chain management principles.
  • The operational applications are described by relating the international trade principles to actual industry examples.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 3:
  • Cargo routes are planned according to client and cargo requirements.
  • Quality of service is maintained within the given customer service specifications.
  • The transportation and movement of dangerous goods is explained in terms of international air and surface requirements.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 4:
  • The need and requirements of marine insurance is described in line with client and cargo requirements.
  • Importing and exporting documentation is completed in terms of exporter and importer requirements.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 5:
  • The ethics required are described in terms of the international trade environment.
  • Core computer functions are carried out according to operator requirements.
  • Business operations are carried out in the required format and time frames.

    Integrated Assessment:

    Assessment should be carried out at regular intervals as well as at the end of the periods of study and should be offered in an integrated way. It is envisaged that learners will work at more than one Unit Standard at a time.

    The achievement of applied competence of this Qualification will be demonstrated if the learner is able to apply operational knowledge and skills to operate within a given security environment.

    Evidence is required that the learner is able to achieve the purpose of the Qualification as a whole at the time of the award of the Qualification. Integration of skills will be demonstrated through the achievement of the core Unit Standards.

    Assessors should note that evidence if integration could well be presented by learners when being assessed against the individual Unit Standards. Thus, there should not necessarily be separate assessments for each Unit Standard and then further assessment for integration. Well designed assessments should make it possible to gain evidence against each Unit Standard while at the same time gaining evidence of integration.

    There are a number of Core Unit Standards that through assessment will address competencies required in the Fundamental Unit Standards. Evidence for these Fundamental Unit Standards can therefore be obtained while the learner is providing evidence for Core Unit Standards. This may also apply to the Elective Unit Standards. 

  • INTERNATIONAL COMPARABILITY 
    Many hours were spent trying to establish what Qualifications throughout the world compared to this particular International Trade Qualification and although some were found in the west and east no African country was found to offer any applicable Qualifications and training programmes.

    It must be noted that within the International Trade arena, the leaders in training and development are the International Federation of Freight Forwarders Association (FIATA) and the Forum for International Trade Training (FITT). When making the comparison it was obvious that the Qualifications and short courses offered by these two major providers had a similar theme running through them to what is being offered in South Africa across four NQF Levels from Level 2 to Level 5. In their programmes everything contained in this NQF Level 2 Qualifications was covered in some form or other and to a much greater depth. The South African Qualification will only introduce the learners to the field of International Trade and offer them the practical skills to succeed in today's competitive global marketplace at an entry level.

    Below are the qualifications/programmes from FIATA and FITT:

    International: International Federation of Freight Forwarders Association (FIATA):

    Diploma in Freight Forwarding:
  • An introduction to Freight Forwarding:
    > International freight forwarder and the freight business.
    > Organisation of the company.
    > Financial requirements.
    > Professional organisations.
    > FIATA documents and forms.
    > General knowledge of transport and related geography.
    > Special transport services.
    > Packing requirements.
    > Co-operation with other service providers.
    > Information and communication technologies.
  • Sea Transport (General):
    > Regulations for the transport of goods by sea.
    > Shipping services.
    > Types of vessels.
    > Bill of lading.
    > Pricing of ocean freight.
    > Geography of ocean transport and port facilities.
  • Maritime Containers (Sea Containers):
    > General knowledge of container transports by sea.
    > Types and specification for most used containers.
    > Loading procedure.
    > Way-bills and accompanying documents.
    > Pricing of inland and ocean freight.
    > Geography of container traffic.
  • Air Transport:
    > General conditions of carriage.
    > Types and specifications of the most used aircrafts and air-pallets.
    > Way-bills and accompanying documents.
    > Calculation of airfreight.
    > Geography in air transport.
  • Road Transport:
    > Legal requirements for national and international road transport.
    > Types of road vehicles.
    > Way-bills and accompanying documents.
    > Tariffs.
    > Geography of road transport.
  • Rail Transport:
    > Legal requirements of national and international rail transport.
    > Ways and means of transportation.
    > Way-bills and accompanying documents.
    > Tariffs (conventional or combined transport).
    > Geography and operational aspects in rail transport.
  • National/International Carriage by Inland Waterway:
    > Legal requirements of transports by inland waterway.
    > Types of barges used in inland waterway carriage.
    > Way-bills and accompanying documents.
    > Determination of freight charges for inland waterway transport.
    > Geography of inland waterways.
  • Customs Procedures:
    > General information on the national customs administration.
    > National customs tariffs.
    > National customs procedures.
    > Liability of the freight forwarder.
    > International conventions.
    > Other possible duties of the customs administration.
  • Logistics:
    > Logistics and forwarding.
    > Logistics concept/project.
    > Physical distribution systems.
    > Sub-systems in logistics (Supply Chain Management).
    > Information handling and control issues.
    > Value added services.
    > Commodity related systems.
    > Rights and duties of the warehouse operator and the customer.
    > Types of warehouse.
    > Warehouse documents and information technology.
    > Construction, layout and safety.
    > Debit of warehouse charges/rent.
    > General.
  • Insurance:
    > Liability insurance.
    > Transport insurance.
  • Dangerous Goods:
    > Role of parties in the transport chain.
    > Regulations.
    > Classification.
    > Marking of hazardous cargo and cargo handling.
    > Training.
    > Documentation.
  • Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) in Forwarding:
    > Basic understanding of computer and its environment.
    > The role of information technologies in forwarding.
    > Data storage and management and databases.
    > Principles of networking and data sharing.
    > Telecommunication and its applications.
    > Electronic data interchange and value-added network.
    > Bar-coding and its application.
    > Internet and web-based technology.
    > e-Commerce.
    > Web-based applications and e-marketplace.
    > Security.
    > Electronic fund transfer and e-payments.

    Canada: Forum for International Trade Training (FITT):
  • Certificate in Global Entrepreneurship:
    > The global entrepreneur.
    > The global economy.
    > Canada's place in the world.
    > Buying and selling internationally.
    > Trade routes.
    > The export process.
    > The import process.
    > The international business plan.
    > International market research and marketing.
    > Trade financing.
    > Logistics and distribution.
    > 'Getting started.
    > Negotiating abroad.
  • Certificate in International Trade Finance:
    > An introduction to trade finance.
    > The financing presentation.
    > Trade finance, risk analysis and risk management.
    > Foreign exchange rates.
    > Export costing and transaction viability.
    > Payment methods and short term financing.
    > Factoring and forfeiting.
    > Understanding and processing documentary credits.
    > Bonds and guarantees.
    > EDC Export credit insurance and financing.
    > Cash flow planning.
    > Countertrade and consignment.
  • Certificate in International Trade Logistics:
    > The role of logistics management.
    > Logistic startegies and planning.
    > Supplier relationships and importing.
    > Incoterms, standards and regulations.
    > Transportation management.
    > Freight forwarders and cargo insurance.
    > Advanced logistics processes.
    > Inventory management.
    > Export procedures and order processing.
    > Trade documentation.
    > Shipping and delivery procedures.
  • Certificate in International Market Entry and Distribution:
    > Defining strategic needs.
    > Barriers to entry.
    > Distribution issues.
    > Introduction to market entry strategies.
    > Partnering with foreign agents and distributors.
    > Foreign direct investment and market entry.
    > Strategic alliances.
    > Investing in international partnerships.
    > Trade shows.
    > Finding the right partner.
    > Negotiating partnering agreements.
    > Working with suppliers.
    > Technology partnering.
    > Managing a joint venture.
    > Exit strategies.
  • Certificate in Legal Aspects of International Trade:
    > An introduction to business law.
    > Principles of Canadian contract law.
    > International business contracts and conduct.
    > Product liability.
    > Resolution of disputes.
    > Sale of goods.
    > International sale of goods.
    > Agents, distributors and franchises.
    > Technology and intellectual property.
    > e-Commerce and the internet.
    > Payment and finance.
    > Carriage of goods and insurance.
    > Competition and anti-trust law.
    > Public trade law.
  • Certificate in International Trade Management:
    > The global economy and international companies.
    > Managing the export process.
    > International business planning.
    > Competitive and business intelligence.
    > Managing for competitive advantage.
    > Operating an export office.
    > Outsourcing operations.
    > Managing strategic alliances and virtual corporations.
    > Supply chain management.
    > International trade finance.
    > Building an international workforce
    > Managing cultural diversity.
    > Managing international innovation.
    > Managing international assets and risk.
  • Going Global Course:
    > Introduction to international trade.
    > Introduction to international market research.
    > Introduction to marketing.
    > Introduction to international trade finance.
    > Introduction to international trade logistics and distribution.
    > Introduction to cultural aspects of international trade.

    With the exception of the Going Global Course these courses and programmes are centred on International Trade best practices and offer the learners the knowledge and skills necessary to have competitive advantage thereby strengthening their hand in the International Trade market at a much higher level than in this Qualification. However, the Going Global Course offers only an introduction to all aspects of the International Trade environment.

    Japan: Customs Training Institute:
  • Certificate: Introduction for Officials Level 1:
    > Duties and Responsibilities as Public Employee.
    > Acquire knowledge and Skills for Efficient Customs Work.
  • Certificate: Introduction for Officials Level 2:
    > Duties and Responsibilities as Public Employee.
    > Acquire knowledge and Skills for Efficient Customs Work.
  • Certificate: Theoretical Level 1:
    > Advanced knowledge of Customs Administration and its Application Ability.
  • Certificate: Advanced Theoretical Level 2:
    > Advanced knowledge of Customs Administration and its Application Ability

    The above courses from Japan only offer an introductory insight to International Trade and therefore do not go into the same detail as the South African qualification. They evidently do not cover any of the real practical work required at this level.

    United Kingdom: British International Freight Association (BIFA):
  • Certificate in Introduction to Air Cargo.
  • Certificate in Aviation Security Cargo Level 1: To include hand search.

    Much like the Qualifications from Japan, these from the United Kingdom, only cover an introductory aspect to the areas of Air Cargo.

    From an overall point of view there is really no one Qualification, course or programme that could compare exactly with the South African Qualification as they are mostly at a higher level and are in far more depth and go into far more detail, which is found spread over the NQF Levels 3, 4 and 5 Qualifications. 

  • ARTICULATION OPTIONS 
    Horizontal articulation is possible with:
  • ID 23833: National Certificate: Business Administration Services, NQF Level 2.
  • ID49648: National certificate: New Venture Creation, NQF Level 2.
  • ID58206: National Certificate: Wholesale and Retail Operations, NQF Level 2.
  • ID48783: National Certificate: Financial Services, NQF Level 2.

    Vertical articulation is possible with:
  • National Certificate: Freight Forwarding and Compliance: Draft.
  • ID57831: National Certificate: Freight Handling, NQF Level 3.
  • ID23655: National Certificate: Business Administration Services, NQF Level 3.
  • ID23654: National Certificate: Management, NQF Level 3. 

  • MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this Qualification must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this Qualification must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation; in terms of agreements reached around assessment and moderation between ETQA's (including professional bodies), and in terms of moderation guideline detailed in
    Qualification Assessor Criteria.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments at exit points of the Qualification, unless ETQA policies specifies otherwise. Moderation should also encompass achievement of the competence described both in individual Unit Standards, Exit Level Outcomes as well as the integrated competence described in the Qualification.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this Qualification may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • CRITERIA FOR THE REGISTRATION OF ASSESSORS 
    For an applicant to register as an assessor, the applicant should:
  • Be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA or an ETQA that has a memorandum of understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Be competent in the outcomes of this Qualification or be in possession of a relevant Qualification at NQF Level 3 or higher. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this qualification was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    NOTES 
    This qualification replaces qualification 22439, "National Certificate: International Trade", Level 2, 128 credits. 

    UNIT STANDARDS: 
      ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
    Core  116932  Operate a personal computer system  Level 1  NQF Level 01 
    Core  113924  Apply basic business ethics in a work environment  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Core  252373  Apply basic concepts of cargo care  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Core  252375  Apply knowledge of basic geographical principles  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Core  114974  Apply the basic skills of customer service  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Core  252386  Carry out routine freight forwarding processes and procedures  Level 2  NQF Level 02  12 
    Core  252383  Demonstrate an understanding of marine insurance concepts  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Core  252374  Demonstrate an understanding of security and confidentiality awareness procedures  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Core  252372  Demonstrate an understanding of the concepts underlying importing and exporting  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Core  252385  Explain special requirements for documenting and transporting dangerous goods  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Core  252380  Explain transport principles used in international trade  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Core  119668  Manage business operations  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Core  116945  Use electronic mail to send and receive messages  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Core  13918  Manage time and the work process in a business environment  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  119463  Access and use information from texts  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Fundamental  9009  Apply basic knowledge of statistics and probability to influence the use of data and procedures in order to investigate life related problems  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Fundamental  7480  Demonstrate understanding of rational and irrational numbers and number systems  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Fundamental  9008  Identify, describe, compare, classify, explore shape and motion in 2-and 3-dimensional shapes in different contexts  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Fundamental  119454  Maintain and adapt oral/signed communication  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Fundamental  119460  Use language and communication in occupational learning programmes  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Fundamental  7469  Use mathematics to investigate and monitor the financial aspects of personal and community life  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Fundamental  9007  Work with a range of patterns and functions and solve problems  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Fundamental  119456  Write/present for a defined context  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Elective  116527  Demonstrate knowledge pertaining to basic health and safety principles in and around a workplace  Level 1  NQF Level 01 
    Elective  119231  Identify the method for removing household items from packaging  Level 1  NQF Level 01 
    Elective  110077  Prepare for freight transportation  Level 1  NQF Level 01 
    Elective  114950  Apply ways of leading in different situations  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Elective  14353  Conduct basic financial transactions  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Elective  114891  Count stock for a stock-take  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Elective  14344  Demonstrate an understanding of a selected business environment  Level 2  NQF Level 02  10 
    Elective  13961  Demonstrate Knowledge and Use of Hand Operated Fire Fighting Equipment  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Elective  252376  Handle perishable cargo  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Elective  123262  Load general freight  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Elective  117898  Move, pack and maintain stock in a distribution centre/warehouse  Level 2  NQF Level 02  12 
    Elective  117899  Pick stock in a distribution centre/warehouse  Level 2  NQF Level 02  12 
    Elective  242983  Arrange the distribution of small to medium sized consignments door-to-door  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  8025  Controlling and locating stock  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  123259  Convey dangerous goods by road  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  117901  Receive stock in a DC/Warehouse  Level 3  NQF Level 03  15 


    LEARNING PROGRAMMES RECORDED AGAINST THIS QUALIFICATION: 
    When qualifications are replaced, some (but not all) of their learning programmes are moved to the replacement qualifications. If a learning programme appears to be missing from here, please check the replaced qualification.
     
    NONE 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS QUALIFICATION: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Aldabri 106 Institute for Quality Pty Ltd 
    2. Global Maritime Legal Solutions Pty Ltd 
    3. Indub Trading c.c. 
    4. P and R Development and Training (Pty) Ltd 
    5. SA Maritime School and Transport College 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.